Can we afford the costs of orphan disease treatments?

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Millions of people in America suffer from rare, or “orphan,” diseases, conditions defined by the government as affecting fewer than 200,000 people. With an estimated 30,000 affected individuals, Huntington’s disease is one of the more common of these disorders.
The pharmaceutical industry has largely ignored these diseases, which number several thousand, because each disease promises too few customers/patients to enable companies to recoup investments in drug research and development and therefore generate a profit. The market usually doesn’t work for people with these diseases.
News about a lawsuit by Arkansas cystic fibrosis (CF) patients against the state’s Medicaid program for its refusal to pay for a highly effective but extremely expensive drug – Vertex Pharmaceutical’s Kalydeco – shined light on this predicament.
In an article titled “The $300,000 Drug,” New York Times columnist Joe Nocera recognized Kalydeco as a “wonder drug” but questioned whether the country can afford the personalized medicine approach that enables scientists to design specialized treatments for very small and specific groups of patients.
With an annual wholesale cost of $311,000, Kalydeco was developed for a subgroup of about 1,100 CF patients with specific genetic mutations. The subgroup numbers about 2,150 patients worldwide in an overall CF population of 70,000 individuals.
“Because patients will likely be taking the drug for the rest of their lives, it could cost millions of dollars to keep just one patient on Kalydeco,” Nocera speculated. “That raises another important question about the coming of personalized medicine. How are we, as a society, going to pay for it?”
Same question for the HD community
The HD community could face this very same question. Because the U.S. has only 30,000 HD patients and 150,000 to 250,000 people at risk of carrying the gene, a potential treatment could cost a lot.
Boston-headquartered Vertex has sought to develop HD treatments since mid-2008. Though the company has made a substantial effort, it doesn’t yet have plans for a clinical trial. (Click here to read more.) Isis Pharmaceuticals, Inc., of Carlsbad, CA, has also worked about as long and is planning to launch a clinical trial in the next year or two.
It’s still too early to project the costs of treatments that have yet to be tested or even fully designed. Other potential remedies are in trials but at best likely remain years from reaching the market.
Furthermore, an HD treatment regimen will likely involve a cocktail of remedies, meaning that patients – via their insurers – will probably have to pay for more than one drug.



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