Striatal neuronal degeneration and loss is an important feature of human Huntington’s disease (HD). R6/2 HD mice recapitulate many features of human HD including striatal atrophy. While striatal neuronal atrophy and loss is reported in R6/2 HD mice the degree of neuronal loss and the characteristics of cell body atrophy are unclear. We used stereological approaches to estimate whole striatal neuronal numbers and characterize changes in striatal neuronal size distribution. R6/2 HD mice had ~126000 fewer neurons per striatum (~12% decline) at 12 weeks of age than wild-type litter-mates; differences were not present at 5 weeks. Analysis of striatal neuronal numbers per cell body size category revealed declines in neuron numbers in the size ranges 550-1050 µm3 suggesting that larger striatal neurons are more susceptible to atrophy or loss in late stages of disease. R6/2 HD mice have a striatal neuronal loss phenotype. As striatal neuronal loss in human HD is dramatic, neuronal loss in R6/2 striatum provides an important late-stage outcome measure for study of disease modifying interventions
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